An Illustrated History of Old Sutton in St. Helens, Lancashire
Part 22 (of 80 parts) - History of Clock Face Colliery
Clock Face Colliery was initially under the ownership of Bold Hall Estate Co. Ltd. who registered their company on July 20th 1893 with a capital of £200,000. Their directors included two millers, a ship owner, a sugar refiner, a colliery proprietor plus industrialist and benefactor Colonel David Gamble. The latter is remembered for donating the Gamble Institute, where Central Library is housed, to the people of St.Helens.
Clock Face Colliery taken c.1905 looking across Gorsey Lane with Burtonwood to the left. The original headgear is over no. 2 shaft and a basic chute arrangement delivers coal to rail wagons underneath. The locomotive is the typical design that worked in St.Helens collieries. The original no. 3 shaft is shown to the right, and behind it is the Boiler House which generated steam for winding engines etc.
Although established primarily to exploit the minerals on former Bold Hall land, the company's industrial remit also included:
Pit sinking could be as perilous an occupation as mining and Andrew Neary was fatally injured in July 1896 when water was accidentally tipped onto him. Then the Liverpool Mercury of October 11th 1899, reported how sinker Charles Booth had also lost his life. During the previous year, John Davies of Neill's Row, Bold, sued the Bold Hall Estate Co. for £300 damages after losing virtually all of his sight. This was after gelignite cartridges had exploded in the pit sinker's face. During the court hearing, it was revealed by John Nolan of Sutton Moss that he and his fellow workers at Clock Face had been forced by the company to contract out of the Employers' Liability Act. The company argued that Davies had caused the accident and had also contracted himself out of the Act, so was not entitled to any compensation. The jury were not impressed by the unsympathetic treatment of Davies and awarded him £200.
On March 23rd 1900, the Manchester Times described how 250 men had been involved in the sinking and construction of shafts over the 'past four or five years' but had now been discharged. They said that the high prices of fuel and iron had also contributed to the suspension of operations at Clock Face as well as the problems with water.
In 1904 the Wigan Coal and Iron Company took over the colliery and invested in powerful pumps that pumped out 400 gallons of water per minute from the pits. The pumps were housed in a dedicated building where an attendant maintained and kept them clean and reported variations in operating cycle. Now Clock Face was able to develop as a business and they converted no. 1 shaft into a pumping pit that coped with over 700,000 gallons of water per day. Of this 500,000 gallons were sold to St.Helens Corporation for use as drinking water. Three ponds on the colliery site stored the water which had a number of uses, including the washing of newly-mined coal.
The above undated photograph is of the machinery that drove the pump at Clock Face, which played a crucial role and was manufactured by Musgrave & Sons of Bolton. The company closed in 1926, so it is likely that this was part of the original 1904 pump installation. The attendants, however, were so dedicated to their work in keeping the equipment spotlessly clean, that it is not easy to say if the equipment is new, or had been in service for many years.
An undated photograph of the Musgrave & Sons engine within the pump house at Clock Face Colliery
Getting Clock Face Colliery fit for purpose cost the life of sinker George Macintosh, who suffered a dreadful death on April 13th 1906. The 27-year-old from Clock Face Road lost his life while fixing steel wire rope down a shaft. This was intended to support pipes that were needed to pump out water. Macintosh was 200 yards from the surface in a small sinking tub with three other men when rope suddenly came loose. It fell some distance down the shaft and cut off Macintosh's head and left arm. These fell 300 yards to the bottom of the pit, leaving his torso in the tub with the three shocked men. Fellow sinker Michael Mahon was badly injured, although carpenter Alfred Roby of Leach Lane and sinker George Thompson were uninjured. At Macintosh's inquest it was revealed that he'd decided to save a little time in uncoiling the rope down from the top of the pit, instead of from the pit bottom up.
In an article published in the Liverpool Daily Post on December 7th 1906, it was stated that rapid progress had recently been made at Clock Face and it was expected that coal would shortly be reached. Coal mining operations began in 1907 and as well providing employment for mineworkers, opportunities
Many of the pit sinkers had stayed at the Clock Face Inn and on February 4th 1908, licensee James Naylor successfully applied to a St.Helens licensing hearing for permission to build a new, larger house. This, he argued, was needed to serve the expanding population of the district, which until very recently had been mainly agricultural. The 200 miners and surface workers that were presently employed at Clock Face Colliery required accommodation and so a large number of houses were being built. At the licence hearing it was stated that the colliery had plans to expand its workforce to between 1000 to 1500 employees. Shafts were also being sunk at the new Sutton Manor Colliery nearby and mineworkers would soon be needed to work that mine.
The above photograph (plus close up right) shows the Clock Face Colliery Rescue team taken just before the war. The establishment of mine rescue teams nationwide was as a result of the Coal Mines Act of 1911, together with some additional provisions made in 1912. The Act came into force as a result of public anguish over recent mine disasters, with two having taken place within the Wigan area. The Maypole Colliery tragedy in Abram, Wigan in August of 1908 was caused by an underground gas explosion and led to the deaths of 75 men and boys.
Members of the Clock Face Colliery Rescue Team plus two drivers - contributed by Terry Callaghan
Then on December 21st 1910 at the Pretoria mine of the Hulton Colliery Company, just outside of Bolton / Atherton, a massive explosion killed 344 men and boys. Neither of these two collieries were owned by the Wigan Coal & Iron Company, the owner of Clock Face Colliery, but they did make a significant contribution. Their six-man Rescue team from the nearby Westhoughton Colliery were highly praised for their rescue efforts in the Pretoria mine, working long eight hour shifts under very difficult conditions. There is no doubt that this had a significant role in the establishment of a rescue team at Clock Face, so soon after the Pretoria explosion.
The Coal Mines Act made it compulsory for mine owners to establish Rescue Teams at their own collieries. Alternatively, they could contribute to the cost of a central rescue station within a maximum distance of 10 miles from the colliery. Mine owners were also legally responsible for the supply and maintenance of all rescue equipment, as well as arranging regular first aid and rescue training.
At Clock Face, the Wigan Coal & Iron Company needed no prompting to set up their own station. This was despite St Helens electing to have a central rescue station and with Clock Face being well within the 10 mile limit. The above photograph demonstrates a very well presented brigade of six proud members, together with their drivers.
In the Pretoria mine disaster a number of the dead had not been injured by the explosion, but had slowly succumbed to a lack of oxygen. With explosive gas being an important issue in many mine accidents, for any rescue brigade to have any success it was necessary to provide them with portable breathing equipment that would maximise their manoeuvrability in difficult situations.
The Proto Rebreather Apparatus became the standard kit for brigade use and was fitted over the wearer's head. It then rested on his shoulders and was held in place by straps around the waist. The oxygen supply was around two hours depending on the cylinder numbers and size, and whilst the unit allowed freedom of movement it was considered bulky, heavy, and in confined spaces within a mine, rather unpleasant to wear. In the photographs the important use of goggles is seen together with electric hand lights, good boots and knee pads. These are particularly important when crawling around in low, confined spaces.
Other Home Office directions relative to the application of the Act at each Colliery Rescue Station were: a) Provision and maintenance of two or more small birds or mice for the testing of the presence of carbon monoxide gas. Most readers would be familiar with the long established practice of mines using canaries. b) Two electric hand lamps always ready for use and capable of providing its designed light standard for 4 hours. c) One set of oxygen reviving equipment. d) A safety lamp for each member of the brigade capable of testing for the presence of gas. e) An ambulance box provided by the St John Ambulance Association, or similar boxes, together with antiseptic solution and fresh drinking water.
The training of rescue teams at Clock Face, as at other collieries, was ongoing and would have closely simulated the conditions faced underground. So special buildings were set up and sulphur fumes and smoke were injected into a totally-dark room. Obstacles were placed in their way, temperatures were elevated and there was even inclined floors, to simulate a fault dip or incline tunnel. In all these conditions they had to communicate as a team, erect roof supports, clear roof falls, install temporary ventilation measures such as brattice cloth, treat the injured and get personnel out safely on stretchers. So when we look at the Clock Face Rescue Team in this photo, do spare a thought for the history of the establishment in the first place, but also for the physical and psychological demands that the work placed on each member.
Like all pits, Clock Face Colliery had its share of industrial disputes. Some were national strikes, others were regional or localised disputes, such as in 1910. Then the near-200 men at Clock Face struck for quite a number of months from February, over revised working conditions and a pay dispute. The miners were offered 2 shillings a ton but they demanded 2s 4d, in line with what they claimed was the going rate at neighbouring pits. In September 1910, men employed at the Wigan Coal and Iron Company's thirteen other pits, voted 2:1 to go out on strike in sympathy. However the result of the ballot was just short of the required 2/3rd majority, that authorised a walk out.
On November 1st 1911, St Helens County Court considered a case brought by Lot Kitts of Clock Face Colliery, which had implications for miners at other pits. Kitts was a check weighman, an individual who was hired by miners to check the findings of the colliery’s own weighman, who they didn't trust. This was at a time when hewers were paid by the weight of the coal they had extracted. The weighing took place via a weighbridge situated outside a wooden cabin that housed the actual mechanical scale. Each box of coal was positioned on the weighbridge, which was connected to the scales inside by levers. The weighman was able to determine the total load on the bridge by sliding a weight along the graduated lever until it was in a balanced horizontal position. He would then subtract the weight of the box to give the weight of the actual coal inside it.
After a strike the Wigan Coal & Iron Company and the men at Clock Face had agreed on a pay rate of 2 shillings a ton, with a guaranteed minimum of 7 shillings a day for all workers. Those miners who didn’t earn more than 7 shillings argued that they had no need for a checkweigher, so wouldn’t pay Lot Kitts. He argued that they had all agreed to pay him, so Kitts sued the refuseniks. Judge Shand ruled that he was fully entitled to receive payment from all the miners, whether they needed his services or not. This photo (above) shows the Check Weighbridge at Douglas Bank Colliery in Wigan in 1890. It provides a good illustration of the efficient organisation, with the weighman inside and the extra people required to quickly get the boxes on and off the weighbridge.
One of Clock Face Colliery's earliest managers was a Mr. Hewlett and James Whittall was in charge from about 1907 to 1911. James lived at 440 Clock Face Road and at Red Villas in Clock Face. His great-grandson Ernie Bate has a painted portrait of his ancestor hanging in his home. Ernie writes:
Portrait of James Whittall the manager of Clock Face Colliery c.1907 to 1911 - contributed by Ernie Bate
Harold Joshua Whitehead (1884-1965) took over as manager at Clock Face Colliery between 1911 to 1917, before transferring to become manager of Abram Colliery, Bickershaw and later Garswood Hall Colliery. H. J. Whitehead presided over the opening of Clock Face Institute on January 9th 1914. This was undertaken by the Earl of Crawford, chairman of the Wigan Coal and Iron Co., who was also known as Lord Wigan. The new club cost £2000 and contained a large meeting room 50' x 22', large billiards room and games room plus dressing rooms and baths for football and cricket teams. Newspapers reported how it was part of a scheme for a 'model village' that the company was creating with the Institute in between football and cricket grounds and surrounded by new colliery houses.
Harold Whitehead the manager of Clock Face Colliery during World War 1 - contributed by Brian Legg
By the time of the opening, 42 homes had been built with 20 more under construction and it's been said that 122 miners' houses were created in total. These cost 6s 6d a week to rent and although mineworkers were supposed to vacate them after leaving the colliery's employment, the company didn't enforce its rule. The Earl of Crawford announced at the opening of the Institute that plans were in hand for a school house, which would be as good and as well equipped as any in the county. He claimed that no money had been spared to ensure that the pit was "suitable for the safety and convenience of those engaged in it." The 27th Earl added that with the housing that his company was providing, they were hoping to attract the "very best class of Lancashire artisan".
An unusual prosecution took place on March 10th 1914 when mine inspector George Fillingham found himself in court. He’d accompanied the manager Harold Whitehead on an inspection down the pit then realised he had his pipe in his pocket. Fillingham ran back to the cage and went straight up the pit but the damage had been done. The Wigan Coal & Iron Company had a rule that all who breached their 'no smoking materials' ban had to be prosecuted. However the magistrates dismissed the case on payment of 6 shillings costs. Fillingham was actually appointed by the miners who had been empowered by a 1911 Act to have a representative who would inspect the mine workings on their behalf.
Many miners at Clock Face Colliery went to war and 22 failed to come home. Eight others were honoured for their bravery during the first world war, being awarded either the Distinguished Conduct Medal or the Military Medal. A plaque was created to honour the fallen and those miners who achieved military distinctions. The brass plaque was originally at the colliery but is now in the Clock Face Miners Recreation Club in Crawford Street.
G. B. Tristram was listed as manager in the 1923 edition of the Wigan Coal and Iron Co's Colliery Year book. This also revealed that Clock Face's nos. 1 and 2 pits had 475 workers (underground and surface) with no.3 pit having 819 workers underground and 204 on the surface.
Like most pits, there were many accidents and inquests into mining fatalities were often held at the Clock Face Inn. On January 21st 1915 Peter Brookfield of 37 Hall Street, Clock Face died as a result of a chain breaking and striking him a violent blow to his neck. The 18-years-old haulage hand collapsed in the arms of a colleague, saying "Give me a drink; I am choking". Some Clock Face workers took a long time to succumb to their injuries. Evan Davies of 27 Rolling Mill Lane, Sutton was run over in October 1917 by the boxes of coal that he was lowering down a brow. However he didn't die until June 2nd 1918. In the last week of January 1919, four fatal accidents occurred at Clock Face, including Garratt Murray, who died from a roof fall.
Contemporary newspaper reports could be vague about the precise causes of death, as accidents often happened suddenly within poorly-lit workplaces. Witnesses and experts attending inquests often surmised as to what they thought had happened. When Head Foreman Alfred Davies (1881-1923) was found dead under a girder in no.3 pit at Clock Face in 1923, the St.Helens Reporter's account (20/4/1923) of his inquest reported comments made by the inspector of mines and by fellow mineworker Walter Jones:
In January 1923 a stone 4 feet in length and 2 feet wide fell on 24-years-old Charles Harrison of Greenough Street, fatally injuring him. Then in March 1924, 50-years-old Isaac Daniels died after being struck by a large stone during a roof fall. The under-manager and fireman were admonished at Daniel's inquest for failing to provide sufficient roof props. Mining historian Ian Winstanley has identified over thirty deaths at Clock Face Colliery during its life, with most fatalities caused by roof or stone falls.
The above picture of Clock Face colliery, acquired from the archives of the former Wigan & District Mining & Technical College, is labelled 'Photographed in the 1920s'. However, it was probably taken during the 1926 lock out, due to a lack of mining activity. Note the empty, seemingly abandoned coal wagons without workers, in the background of the picture.
Headgear, screens building & winding house (right) of no. 1 downcast pit of Clock Face Colliery during the 1920s
That is with the exception of two men who are putting on sheeting and installing windows into the 'screens' building. They are stood on what appears to be a single plank without rails or protective helmets. Occupational health and safety during the 1920s was not what it is today! A rare day with no production was an ideal time to perform such tasks. When mining operations were underway, the whole building would shake from the vibrating screens and shakers, which is not good for new glass.
The top photograph also shows rope coming out of the winding house on the right of the picture. Ebor Rowley from Leach Lane, Sutton was, for many years, a winder at the colliery until its closure. Like other winders in pits, Ebor would sit alone responding to the shaft signals. A member of St.Nicholas church choir, Ebor is pictured (right) on a day trip to Southport in 1950.
The screening process was an important part of mining and it's worth describing its function and the processes and technologies employed at Clock Face in some detail. Screening or sorting was required because the material that came up the shafts in the 'tubs' (skips in Parkside and from 1986 in Sutton Manor) was not just coal. It also included rock, plus discarded items used in maintaining miners' safety, eg. timber, steel bars and brattice cloth used in ventilation. The coal also varied in size and type and burning efficiency.
In the early days of mining, coal was extracted from the seam by hand, with miners 'hewing' the coal with a pick. The hewer would then fill a container (initially a basket, then a box on wheels) and his 'drawer' would take it to the shaft for winding. With this simple system, the miner was able to ensure a better segregation of coal to non-coal items before the delivery to the surface. Little screening was required, apart from sorting the type and size of coal.
Pictured from Gorsey Lane with Sutton Manor to the right. No. 2 pit's headgear on the left of the picture is being dismantled, ready for replacement with steel headgear of similar design to no. 1 pit on the right which is integrated with the new screen building.
As mining developed and more mechanised methods of coal extraction were introduced, the boxes or tubs now contained items other than pure coal. These needed to be removed as the colliery's customers would not be happy with a coal delivery that included rock or other non-combustible items.
It was also necessary to remove the aforementioned redundant items, such as timber and brattice cloth, so they could be recycled or disposed of. In the early days, these products were crudely extracted before they got into wagons or coal sacks. This hand separation work was mainly carried out by women and it was slow, tiring work. Developments in the efficiency of underground extraction, the opening of multiple coal seams and improved winding speeds and techniques led to greater volumes being wound and so improved screening methods were needed.
Consequently engineering companies that served the mining industry began designing and manufacturing mechanised devices to greatly improve the efficiency of screening. The introduction of a full screening system also required the design of new buildings to house this equipment and these changes also affected the existing winding headgear designs. In the new system, screening was both a vertical and horizontal separation process. Coal could, for example, be segregated into different sizes by dropping through certain sized holes onto a conveyor underneath (vertical). Or scrap items could be manually taken off a conveyor and placed in a bin alongside (horizontal).
The letterhead of John Wood & Sons Ltd. who designed and made the screens at Clock Face Colliery
Both the horizontal and vertical separations ended via chutes into rail wagons underneath. When all these drops in levels are added together, it can be appreciated that the original surface stopping level for the cages in the shaft now had to be much higher. Coupled with the introduction of overwind safety devices into the headgear, to stop the possibility of the cage going over the pulleys, these changes required complete new headgears to be installed or existing ones modified. Clock Face Colliery covered all of these issues during the 1920s, illustrated in the following pictures.
The above photograph again taken from inside the colliery yard looking towards Gorsey Lane, shows the exterior of the completed screens building integrated with the downcast no. 1 pit's new headgear. The building was very large with many levels inside. Full coal wagons can be seen under the building ready to be despatched via the rail line to the left, which joins the Widnes line south of Clock Face. An example of the loading chute from the scrap bin can be seen at the front right of the picture.
Clock Face Colliery pictured in John Wood & Son catalogue - From the Graham Isherwood Collection
The screens building was a significant investment for the Wigan Coal and Iron Company and John Wood & Sons supplied the screening equipment. They included the photographs below in their catalogue which demonstrate the different stages of screening at Clock Face.
The upper part of the first photo above shows the tippler housing into which tubs discharged their coal, with two lines of shaker conveyors below. The inclined steel shakers are thrown forwards and backwards by an eccentric drive shaft and rod system. Hole perforations in the bottom plate begin a sizing process, and the end of the shaker feeds a motorised continuous 'slat' conveyor travelling to the left.
Two photos taken inside the Clock Face Colliery screens building - From the Graham Isherwood Collection
The second photograph on the right shows the next stage with the slat conveyors taking the coal through a hand screening area. Women would generally stand alongside these conveyors to remove unwanted items, dropping them into a hopper between the 2nd and 3rd conveyors. Note the steps and platform used to cross from one position to another, and the shovels that were used in the removal process as well as to keep the floor clean. The small amount of coal on the conveyors suggest that the photographs were taken at the installation period during trials of the various stages of screening.
The above photograph is further along the same process, with the slat conveyor on top. When in operation, coal was delivered to the inclined perforated 'troughs' and then onto another slat conveyor. The perforations are small in size and are likely to have been used to capture the last of the 'slack' or very small coal.
Inside the screens building pictured in John Wood & Son's catalogue - From the Graham Isherwood Collection
Note the rake leaning onto the bunker which was used to remove unwanted items or to clear build ups in the passage of coal. The slat conveyors at this point are now sloping downwards, suggesting that this particular line is getting close to its final delivery into a hopper/ bunker.
The above sectional drawing of the Clock Face screens building shows an internal cross section looking towards Burtonwood. At the top level are full tubs having exited the cage and now travelling down to the tipplers on the left and into which they will tip their load to begin the screening process. The empty tubs having returned to their position on the right are able to re-enter the two decks of each cage. At ground level, rail wagons can be seen under the respective-sized coal discharges, in this case nuts, cobbles and large coal.
Sectional drawing of the Clock Face screens building - From the Graham Isherwood Collection
The strikes in the 1920s caused considerable hardship to the families of miners. Just days before the 1926 national strike and lock out, the St.Helens Reporter, in an article entitled 'Who Picks the Coal? - Dangerous Practice at Clock Face', described how serious damage had been caused to the colliery dirt heap by one hundred and fifty people who'd been helping themselves to coal.
The article reported that it had been the custom for some months for local people to regularly visit the heap and 'purloin some of the coal which they found there'. The practice had continued despite the death of a man, which the newspaper described as a 'raider', who some weeks earlier had been buried alive whilst taking coal.
Fortunately on the morning of 29th March 1926 when 150 pickers were 'busily engaged raking and scratching among the dirt for coal', no one lost their life. However, the railway line which carried 100 ton trains at the top of the heap, began to sink and so the colliery management called the police. P.C. Johnson arrived but was single-handed and quite unable to arrest so many pilferers on his own. He did take the names of three men who were subsequently fined 5 shillings each at St.Helens Police Court.
Left: St.Helens Reporter 16/4/1926; Right: Women picking coal at Clock Face during the 1926 lock out - note small boy on left
There were happier times during the lock out. There was very good weather throughout the summer and in June it was reported that Clock Face colliers were gathering nightly at a coppice, playing their mouth organs and listening to a nightingale sing. Word soon spread and 400 people from the village turned up late one night, although the bashful nightingale refused to perform! The manager at Clock Face Colliery at this time was a man called Twist.
Men preparing food for the soup kitchen at Clock Face in September 1926 during the miners' lockout
The above photograph is believed to have been taken during the 1926 lock out. Dick Latham of Gorsey Lane is second from the left in the front row of pitmen that are facing the camera. To Dick's left and just behind him with head turned, is David Mercer, also of Gorsey Lane. Can you name any other miners? Note some very youthful faces amongst them.
Clock Face Colliery miners thought to have been taken during the 1926 lock out - contributed by Alan Mercer
In May 1930 Herbert Cunliffe of Clock Face was awarded a university scholarship from the Miners’ Welfare National Scholarship scheme. The annual award enabled mineworkers or sons and daughters of miners to study at university. Around 2000 people applied each year and Herbert was one of 12 recipients for the 1930 award. It was a benefit of the Miners’ Welfare Fund which had been established in 1920 and funded by a levy on coal production and mining royalties. By the end of 1937 almost £17 million had been raised through the fund with the bulk of the money spent on baths, leisure and medical facilities.
On June 1st 1931, the Evening Telegraph ran the headline 'Coal Mined by Woman'. The newspaper explained how Mrs. Masie Robinson 'clad in an old raincoat and carrying an electric safety lamp in her hand' had accompanied her husband on a visit down Clock Face Colliery. London barrister J. Rowland Robinson was the Conservative candidate for Widnes and wished to inspect working conditions below ground. "Of course, I'm not nervous", Mrs. Robinson told a reporter just before the cage began its 800 yard journey downwards. The couple returned with black faces after their two hour trip and with pieces of coal that they'd dug from the face almost a mile away from the pit shaft. "It has been one of the most thrilling experiences of my life", declared Mrs. Robinson.
Cameras were banned down Clock Face so underground photographs are rare - contributed by Terry Callaghan
The above photograph looks towards Burtonwood, and shows the headgear of no. 2 upcast pit in the centre with the small no. 3 pit headgear to its left. The upcast shaft is the one through which large ventilation fans extract the foul air from the mine workings, a process that automatically replaces it by having fresh air being drawn down no. 1 shaft, hence the term downcast shaft. Underground the air can only flow in one direction with clever arrangements to ensure that this happens, and it is a serious offence for anybody to violate this principle. For example by leaving a door open between the return air tunnel, and the fresh air tunnel. The winding house for the no. 1 shaft can be seen behind the building steelwork on the left of the photo. The small no. 3 shaft was the pumping shaft through which large volumes of piped water were brought up every day. This was through the work of large pumps contained within the pump house on the right of the picture facing the shaft.
Clock Face Colliery headgears, screens and winding house (undated but the desolate scene suggests a strike day)
On the extreme right of the above photograph, the lower section of the colliery chimney through which the boiler's combustion products were extracted, can just be seen. The boiler also produced steam for various colliery uses including heating the offices and baths etc. Some black-looking insulated hot water pipes from that location can also be seen on the right.
The pit-head baths at Clock Face Colliery were completed in July 1939 and were opened by the Earl of Crawford. They were praised in the St.Helens press as a 'boon to the housewife' and on Sunday mornings local children were allowed to use them as long as they took their own towels. The baths, or more accurately showers, were funded by the Miners Welfare Committee and the land on which they were sited, was acquired from Byron's farm. A steel-framed walkway bridge over Gorsey Lane, that was built with asbestos sheet walls and roof, connected the no. 1 pit Screens house on the main colliery site to the baths building. The walkway allowed colliery workers to go to and from their respective pit locations safely and in all weathers.
Left: Colliery Tally; Right: An undated photograph of Clock Face Colliery - probably taken during the 1930s
The baths complex (pictured above) also housed a lamp room, fully-equipped rescue stations, cycle sheds, offices and a canteen. The scheme cost £26,000 to build and accommodated 1600 men and 40 women, the latter having their own separate bathroom. Dominating the site was a high Water Tower, which housed the large water tank that serviced the baths, canteen and offices. It was located at the top of the tower to provide adequate water pressure. The award-winning gardens outside gave the colliery a 'rural' feel and were tended by pit staff.
The above photograph of the baths complex is taken from an upper level in the no.1 pit screen house looking north. Indicated on the picture are 1) Walkway; 2) Shower area; 3) Lamp room; 4) Locker room; 5) Water tower; 6) Canteen; 7) Offices; 8) Manager’s office; 9) Entrance to offices; 10) Gardens. Mineworkers soon became accustomed to crossing the bridge, walking down two or three steps into the corridor and dropping their lamp off onto a long bench, before going downstairs to the lockers/showers below.
There was a strong community spirit and the Clock Face Colliery carnivals were said to be among the most talked about events in the north-west. The colliery band performed at these and other events and in a report in the St.Helens Newspaper of May 12th 1939, it was stated that:
Mr. Benyon was awarded 2nd prize for his performance of what presumably was the music from the Merry Widow
The Clock Face Colliery Band had been created soon after the opening of the Miners' Institute in 1914. It's been said that a manager called Anderton obtained £500 to buy a full set of instruments for 25 players. Six miners who were members of Parson Peter's band in Parr formed the core and each Christmas the Clock Face Miners' band would go round the village playing Christmas carols. Groups of miners also played accordions on summer evenings on waste ground during the 1920s, attracting good audiences. Another well-remembered conductor of the Colliery Band was Richard Fairhurst. Not all members were mineworkers, as cornet player Fred Fairhurst worked on Byron's farm.
Left: NCB advert; Right: Programme for the Clock Face Colliery Recreation Club Athletic Sports 1950
The Clock Face ensemble, along with the Sutton Manor Colliery Band, played at the Athletics Sports meetings which were first held in 1947. These were organised by the Clock Face Colliery Recreation Club, which had changed its name from the Institute. The annual sports events took place on the large recreation ground opposite the Clock Face Hotel, in between the main road and Crawford Street. The programme for the 1950 sports reveals that 31 events were scheduled that year with a total prize money of £140. That is equivalent to over £3000 in today's money. The day ended with a Grand Carnival Dance in St. Aidan's School to the music of G. Roughley and his Band.
A picture of the popular Clock Face Colliery Band - Contributed by George Houghton
The recreation ground also hosted Clock Face Colliery Football Club which competed in the local league. The Recreation Club still exists and presently operates two adult football and one rugby team, plus eight junior rugby teams. In April 2012 they were awarded £49,875 from Sport England’s Protecting Playing Fields fund to convert 14 acres of farmland into pitches for football, rugby and other sports.
Clock Face Colliery Football Club 1949 - Ernest Patterson front row, 4th from left - can you name any others?
At the end of March 1948 the mineworkers at Clock Face went on strike for a week. Some men had been moved from a 3 feet 9 inches seam to one measuring 2 feet four inches. Output had fallen and the miners claimed they were losing 10 shillings a day. During 1949 the newly-created National Coal Board engaged in a recruitment campaign for school-leavers. 16-years-old Malcolm Ormrod of Clock Face Colliery featured in their national advertisements extolling the virtues of working in the coal industry. A photo of young C. B. Ralph also appeared in the NCB ads, as a 'mining apprentice from grammar school', who was quoted as saying that "There's plenty of variety in the work and a good career ahead if you work for it."
In 1950 John Rafferty of Clock Face Colliery made the final of that year's Mineworkers’ National Amateur Boxing Championships, fighting for his pit within the Featherweight division.
Horace Pugh was the Land Sale Manager at Clock Face Colliery from the 1940s. This was a curious title as it had nothing to do with land requisition or land sales. Horace and his staff were instead responsible for the selling of coal to the miners and public and he also had responsibility for the coal yard and sidings that ran down the side of Gorsey Lane. His office was at the main gate opposite the baths, just to the left of the gate. When the mine closed Horace was transferred to Bold Colliery as Land Sale Manager and remained there until his retirement.
Horace Pugh is 2nd from right standing next to his brother-in-law Frank Spakauskas (right) - contributed by Alan Pugh
However Horace began working at Clock Face as a 'Bevin Boy', one of many young men who were enlisted to work at the pit, instead of in the armed forces, as his son Alan Pugh recalls:
One little known fact is that Clock Face Colliery played a role in the Berlin Airlift of 1948. After Stalin's blockade was imposed on West Berlin, US Army trucks lined up in Gorsey Lane to be filled with Clock Face coal. This was then flown onto Germany from Burtonwood Air Base. One problem was that the coal was not stored in sacks but loose in the cargo holds of planes. It tended to shift in flight which caused some difficulties for the pilots.
After nationalisation of the coal mines, a Labour government in power and a national pay agreement, it was hoped that there would be industrial harmony in the mines. However for two years the issue of concessional coal led to considerable disruption in the Lancashire coalfield and in May 1949, 50,000 miners in 65 pits went on strike. When the industry was in private hands, the owners had different arrangements on a town and pit basis. During 1948 five million tons of coal at free or reduced prices had been distributed nationally to mine workers and managers. However St.Helens was the only town in Lancashire that granted concessionary coal, with Clock Face Colliery having the most generous scheme. All miners who were householders or had dependants, received a ton of coal every 28 days at 5 shillings a ton, which was much less than the retail price. The long-standing dispute was finally settled in April 1950 when it was agreed that all miners would receive 4 tons 8 cwt at 21 shillings below retail price. This would cost the NCB £136,000 per year and Clock Face miners had to accept a far-less generous concessionary scheme than the one they’d been used to.
The Mines and Quarries Act of 1954 brought in a requirement for mining qualifications for managers and undermanagers, including deputies, shotfirers, engineers and others in positions of responsibility. One of the most responsible positions in any pit was held by the individual in charge of the winding house who had to safely take men and materials up and down the shaft in cages. In 1905 a mistake by the winder at nearby Bold colliery had led to the deaths of five miners, including four boys.
John King who was in charge of the winding house at Clock Face Colliery - Contributed by John James
During the 1940s and ‘50s John King held that important position at Clock Face Colliery. He entered the mining industry in 1918 at the age of 13 when he got a job at Pemberton Colliery, assisted by a reference from John Woods, Vicar of Highfield. After transferring first to Cronton Colliery, John King relocated to Clock Face where he lived at 31 Bridge Road. In 1958 as pit winder he received his Mechanic’s Certificate under the Mines and Quarries Act, shortly before moving to Sutton Manor Colliery.
There are many who still recall the sight of black-faced miners walking through Clock Face village during the 1950s, including Ernie Bate:
However, in October 1965 the National Coal Board, as part of its national coal mine 'streamlining' initiative, deemed the pit to be uneconomic claiming that there were 'geological difficulties' and the NCB announced that the colliery at Clock Face would close during the following year.
Clock Face Colliery Closure St Helens Reporter 23/10/1965
At the time of the closure announcement, there were 700 men employed at the site producing 169,000 tons of coal per year. Johnny Quinn, head lampman and Clock Face employee for forty-four years, expressed his feelings to the St Helens Reporter:
Clock Face Colliery lampman Johnny Quinn with best friend and fellow pitman David Mercer (1st and 3rd in second photo) - Johnny's son, John Quinn, played professional football for Sheffield Wednesday - contributed by Alan Mercer
After the colliery closed, a pump was installed to daily deliver tens of thousands of gallons of near pure water from underground to Sutton Manor Colliery and into the public water system. The site was reclaimed by St Helens Council as a community woodland and public open space in the late 1990s and is now known as Clock Face Country Park and enjoyed by many. Other than the hidden-away capped shafts, the old baths and lamp storage complex in Gorsey Lane is currently all that's left of the historic colliery. However on February 5th 2015, St.Helens Council granted planning permission for the building of 19 homes on the site.
Capped shaft number 1 at the former site of Clock Face Colliery pictured in 2009 - contributed by Neil Selfridge